Transactions on Energy Systems and Engineering Applications https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea <p><em>Transactions on Energy Systems and Engineering Applications</em> publishes peer-reviewed articles reporting on research, development, and applications on energy systems covering all areas of engineering and applied mathematics. The journal editor will enforce standards and a review policy to ensure that papers of high technical quality are accepted. The journal is published by the Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar.</p> <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2745-0120 (<em>Online</em>)</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencia Creative Commons" /></a></p> Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar en-US Transactions on Energy Systems and Engineering Applications 2745-0120 <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>, which allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> HyTra: Hyperclass Transformer for WiFi Fingerprinting-based Indoor Localization https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/542 <p>The emerging demand for a variety of novel Location-based Services (LBS) by consumers and industrial users is driven by the rapid and extensive proliferation of mobile smart devices. Sensors embedded in smart devices or machines provide wireless connectivity and Global Positioning System (GPS) capability, and are co-utilized to acquire location-linked data which are algorithmically transformed into reliable and accurate location estimates. GPS is a mature and reliable technology for outdoor localization but indoor localization in a complex multi-storey building environment remains challenging due to fluctuations in wireless signal strength arising from multipath fading. Location-linked data from wireless access points (WAPs) such as received signal strength (RSS) are acquired as numerical sequences. By conceptualizing a fixed order sequence of WAP measurements as a sentence where the RSS from each WAP are words, we may leverage on recent advances in artificial intelligence for natural language processing (NLP) to enhance localization accuracy and improve robustness against signal fluctuations. We propose the hyper-class Transformer (HyTra), an encoder-only Transformer neural network which learns the relative positions of wireless access points (WAPs) through multiple learnable embeddings. We propose a second network, HyTra-HF, which improves upon HyTra by applying a hierarchical relationship between location classes. We test our proposed networks on public and private datasets varying in sizes. HyTra-HF outperforms existing deep learning solutions by obtaining 96.7\% accuracy for the floor classification task on the UJIIndoorloc dataset. HyTra-HF is amenable to deep model compression and achieves accuracy of 95.95\% with over ten-fold reduction in model size using Sparsity Aware Orthogonal (SAO) initialization and has the best-in-class accuracy for the sparse model.</p> Muneeb Nasir Kiara Esguerra Ibrahima Faye Tong Boon Tang Mazlaini Yahya Afidalina Tumian Eric Tatt Wei Ho Copyright (c) 2024 Muneeb, Kiara, Ibrahima Faye, Tong Boon Tang, Mazlaini Yahya, Afidalina Tumian, Eric Tatt Wei Ho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 5 1 1 24 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.542 An Enhanced Energy Efficiency Routing for WSN based on Elephant Herding and Swarm Optimization Approaches https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/548 <p>Energy utilization and inadequacy of sensor nodes are considered major drawbacks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This is because the sensor nodes use the battery for recharging energy. To overcome this issue WSN utilized a clustering-routing algorithm. This protocol divides the adjacent sensor nodes into separate clusters to choose a cluster head. Thus, the cluster head gathers information from all clusters and transmits it to the base station. In this article, the proposed method used cluster-based routing protocols to enhance energy efficiency and network lifetime. Moreover, this paper follows three stages to maximize energy efficiency. Initially, the clustering process is performed using dolphin swarm optimization (DSO), where a group of clusters is formed. Then the second stage is composed of cluster head selection among the group of clusters by elephant herding optimization (EHO) strategy. Finally, the collected data are necessary to forward to the base station for transferring the information. A specified path (routing) is selected by chicken swarm optimization (CSO). By using these algorithms, the network nodes support the balance of energy utilization. Experimental analysis proves when evaluated with existing methods the proposed technique has improved energy efficiency with an increase in network lifetime.</p> Robin Abraham M. Vadivel Copyright (c) 2024 Robin Abraham, M. Vadivel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-27 2024-02-27 5 1 1 24 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.548 A switched-inductor switched-capacitor based ultra-gain boost converter: analysis and design https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/549 <p>A feature known as high-voltage gain conversion is necessary for a number of applications, including photovoltaic (PV) connected systems, UPS, SMPS, and some inverter applications, specifically for the power processing of low-voltage renewable sources. This article makes a suggestion for an ultra-gain boost converter based on a switched-inductor switched-capacitor (SISC) network. Ultra-voltage gain (&gt; 15) and lower voltage stresses across the switches are the main benefits of the proposed converter. Additionally, compared with other high-gain topologies, the number of components decreases. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the proposed ultra-gain boost DC–DC converter along with a comparison to other topologies that have been previously published in the literature. The simulation model confirmed that the efficiency of the proposed topology is 95.23%.</p> Neyyala Raju N. Murali Mohan Vijay Kumar Copyright (c) 2024 Neyyala Raju, N. Murali Mohan, Vijay Kumar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 5 1 1 20 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.549 Study of the properties of a composite material Fe78Si9B13 / GNP in an epoxy matrix https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/593 <p>This study investigates the properties of a composite material obtained by mixing <strong>Fe<sub>78</sub>Si<sub>9</sub>B<sub>13</sub></strong> metallic powders (at %) with graphene nanoplates (<strong>GNP</strong>) in an epoxy matrix. Four composite types were created with <strong>GNP</strong> weight proportions of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%. The composites were embedded in transparent epoxy with weight proportions of 10%, 15%, and 20%, and then filled into 7 x 20 mm cylindrical probes. Twelve samples were prepared, and another 12 samples were subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field of 1 kG. All samples were tested with a Universal Testing Machine (<strong>Model WDW 10E</strong>) up to a maximum force of 20 kN. The experiment recorded deformation (<strong>ΔH</strong>) vs. charge force. Most samples showed a maximum compression resistance of 390 MPa, except for a few that did not exceed 100 MPa. The magnetically oriented samples showed a greater elastic limit in the range of 200 to 270 MPa. Optical microscopy was used to observe the ordering of the particles after the application of the magnetic field. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the structure of the composite components. A vibrating sample magnetometer (<strong>VSM</strong>) was used to characterize the magnetic behavior of the metallic powders in the composite.</p> Marcelo Ruben Pagnola Jairo Useche Javier Faig Sergio Ferrari Ricardo Martinez Garcia Copyright (c) 2024 Marcelo Ruben Pagnola, Jairo Useche, Javier Faig, Sergio Ferrari, Ricardo Martinez Garcia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-12 2024-04-12 5 1 1 12 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.593 TS fuzzy control of PV assisted single phase three phase induction motor drive for rural pumping applications https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/537 <p>The motor drives for aqua farms and large-scale irrigation system needs a reliable electric drive, which requires the continuous power supply and efficient control. However, the rural single phase power supply is frequently interrupted. Renewable assistance would improve the availability of supply and heuristic control approach improves robustness in control. This paper presents a three phase induction motor drive fed from single phase electric grid with assistance from PV and battery energy storage. TS- fuzzy based direct torque control is employed for robust control during load changes, and the topology, component modelling, front-end converter control, PV interface DC–DC converter control, and inverter control are presented. MATLAB/Simulink is used to simulate the proposed drive system. The performance of the proposed system is validated using simulation data for both steady-state and transient states.</p> Sareddy Venkata Rami Reddy Rekha Mudundi M. Kiran Kumar Ch. Rami Reddy T. Venkata Sai Kalyani D. Ravi Kumar B. Nagi Reddy Copyright (c) 2024 Sareddy Venkata Rami Reddy, Rekha Mudundi, M. Kiran Kumar, Ch. Rami Reddy, T. Venkata Sai Kalyani, D. Ravi Kumar, B. Nagi Reddy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 5 1 1 17 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.537 Performance improvement of PV systems during dynamic partial shading conditions using optimization algorithms https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/557 <p>PV power plants encounter varying levels of irradiance, temperature fluctuations, and partial shading because of the differences in sunlight conditions. Partial shading can cause an increase in the power loss, leading to a reduction in efficiency. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is of utmost importance in the functioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems for electricity generation because it is indispensable for maximizing power extraction from PV modules, thereby increasing the overall power output. In situations where partial shading is present, the utilization of MPPT algorithms to achieve maximum power output becomes complex because of the existence of multiple distinct peak power points, each having a unique local optimum. To overcome this issue, a method is proposed that uses Darts Game Optimization (DGO), a game-based optimization process, to efficiently determine and extract the maximum power from various local optimal peaks. A population-based optimization method known as the Darts Game Optimization algorithm exists. In this approach, the optimization process begins by creating a population of random players. Then, the algorithm iteratively updates and improves the population to search for the best player or solution. In this study, the DGO algorithm was applied to the MPPT process for voltage optimization in the PV procedure. The DC-DC converter is utilized to capture the maximum available power, and the findings demonstrate that the DGO algorithm efficiently identifies the global maximum, resulting in accelerated convergence, reduced settling time, and minimized power oscillation. Through simulations, the feasibility and effectiveness of the DGO centered MPPT approach was confirmed and compared with MPPT algorithms relying on perturb and observe (P&amp;O) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The simulation results offer compelling evidence that the DGO algorithm, as proposed in this study, proficiently traces the global maximum, thereby substantiating its practicality and efficiency.</p> Keerthi Sonam Soma Balamurugan R. Karuppiah N. Copyright (c) 2024 Keerthi Sonam Soma, Balamurugan R., Karuppiah N. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 5 1 1 21 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.557 Enhancing the solar water pumping efficiency through Beta MPPT method-controlled drive https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/568 <p>This paper presents an innovative approach to achieve efficient solar water pumping through the integration of a Photovoltaic (PV) array and a Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor water pumping system. The system incorporates a Voltage Source Converter (VSC) with six switches, utilized to facilitate commutation. The inherent solar radiation is harnessed by the PV array, capitalizing on its renewable nature to generate electricity. By dynamically adjusting the switching states of the six VSC switches, the speed of the BLDC motor is modulated in response to the varying levels of available solar radiation. The BLDC motor's hall sensor signals play a crucial for determining the rotor's position and they are employed to generate precise commutation signals. The control strategy integrates the Incremental Conductance (INC) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which initially governs the commutation signals. To enhance adaptability to rapidly changing solar irradiation conditions, the control strategy dynamically updates the commutation signals using the innovative Beta MPPT algorithm. To assess the efficiency of the proposed control strategy, a comprehensive comparison between the INC and Beta MPPT algorithms is conducted using MATLAB Simulink. The performance of the BLDC motor under these algorithms was evaluated in terms of its ability to optimize energy extraction. The graphical analysis of these algorithms, considering the temporal aspect, substantiates the identification of the superior MPPT algorithm for BLDC motor control in solar water pumping applications. This study contributes to the advancement of solar water pumping systems by introducing a novel control approach that combines PV array utilization, VSC-based commutation, and a dual-step MPPT algorithm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Beta MPPT algorithm by enabling the system to respond promptly to fluctuating solar irradiation conditions, thereby enhancing the overall efficiency of the solar water pumping process.</p> Srinivasa Rao Gundala Tellapati Anuradha Devi K. Sarada M. Bharathi Srikanth Goud B K. Neelima K. S. Bhargavi Copyright (c) 2024 Srinivasa Rao Gundala, Tellapati Anuradha Devi, K. Sarada, M. Bharathi, Srikanth Goud B, K. Neelima, K. S. Bhargavi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 5 1 1 13 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.568 Real-time hardware-in-loop system based validation of vehicle-grid interface for bidirectional power flow control https://revistas.utb.edu.co/tesea/article/view/567 <p>In the context of modern sustainable transportation technology, the terms Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) and Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) holds significant value. During V2G and G2V modes, vehicle and grid exchange power using various power converters to modulate the power for a sustainable electrical energy ecosystem. With V2G, the EVs can also perform the role of a peak power contributor, reserve power source, and an efficient system to improve power quality issues by working as power factor corrector, reactive power compensator, and active power filter, to name a few during the V2G mode. The on-board power converter in the vehicle, working as the charger for the battery, is the component required to facilitate the intended bidirectional power exchange between the vehicle and grid and also modulates the power as and when required. The modality for operating the onboard charger as a power exchange tool depends on the type of control strategy adopted as well as on the battery and grid parameters. In this paper, a bidirectional power converter (on-board converter) is introduced, which is controlled by adopting a d-q axis-based control strategy. The MATLAB/SIMULINK-based system simulation model is created, and the Hardware-in-Loop (HIL) tool Opal-RT 4510 is used to validate the simulation results on the intended hardware and real-time scenario. The control strategy, when integrated with the adopted model, contributes to enhancing the power-transferring capability of the converter, which is assessed using the simulation and subsequent HIL-based implementation. The paper also focuses on narrating the steps to implement the vehicle-grid interface using HIL and forming a generic reference model for a bidirectional power flow converter, such that it can be used for other circuits and its implementation in real-time scenarios.</p> Amit Sant Kapil P. N. Copyright (c) 2024 Amit Sant, Kapil P. N. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-06-22 2024-06-22 5 1 1 23 10.32397/tesea.vol5.n1.567